Gu Hongming

Gu Hongming (1857.7.18-1928.4.30), the word Tang Sheng, No. Li Cheng, claiming to be careless people, and not the Department for vagrant, Hanbin read easy, pedant, English nameTomson. A native of Fujian Province Tongan County Born in South Pacific, British Malaysia in Penang. Xue Bo West, known as “the genius”, proficient in English, German, Latin, Greek, Malaya, in 9 languages, was 13 doctoral degrees, is versed in the Qing Dynasty The West Chinese science, language and East China’s first person.
He translated three China “four books” — ” The Analects of Confucius “,” The Doctrine of the Mean “And” University “Innovation, greatly; and the author of” China Oxford movement “(formerly known as the” Qing “and” spread) Chinese spirit “(formerly” Spring and Autumn Annals “Etc.) English book, keen awareness of the oriental culture and the spirit of the west, and had a significant impact, the West has spread a word: to Chinese can not look at the three main hall, can not see Gu Hongming.

1People’s life

1857 In July 18th, Gu Hongming was born in Nanyang The Malay Peninsula Northwest (PenangMalaysia The The state of Penang ) is a British Rubber park. In his early years, his ancestors from Chinese Fujian Quanzhou Huian county government moved to Southeast Asia, the accumulation of good fortune and fame. His father Gu Ziyun was a British operation of rubber plantation duct, fluent in Minnan dialect, can speak English, malay. His mother was blonde The West People speak English, and Portuguese . The Gu Hongming childhood family environment has surprisingly on the language comprehension and memory. No children rubber plantation owner Brown Mr very like him, will adopt him as a son. He let his reading Shakespeare , Bacon Et al.
1867, Brown The couple returned to England, the ten year old Gu Hongming to the most powerful empire in the west. Before his departure, his father in the ancestral tablet incense before admonished him: “no matter where you go, whatever you are English, German or French, don’t forget, you are Chinese.”
In 1870, 14 year old Gu Hongming was sent to Germany to study science. After returning to England, master English, Devin, French, Latin, greek. And with excellent performance was the famous University of Edinburgh admission, and the president, a famous writer, historian,Philosophy Home Carlile Appreciation.
In 1877, Gu Hongming received a master’s degree in literature, and in Germany University of Leipzig Study on literature, philosophy and other famous universities. At this time, Gu Hongming won the philosophy, science, God, thirteen doctorate, parade in nine languages. He held to commemorate the centenary of Bismarck will be made by the Germans in an impromptu speech, won acclaim. He also in Latin poetry. The Shanghai Yuyuan Road corridor wall mosaic of Latin poetry, Gu Hongming wrote. Later, Cai Yuanpei Go University of Leipzig At school, Gu Hongming is prominent Famous Figure; 40 years later, when Lin Yutang At the University of Leipzig, Gu Hongming’s works have been to be nominated for school books, Gu Hongming was mentioned in Lin Yutang’s “JINGWAH cloud” in a book. 14 years of student life make the talented teenager Gu Hongming became proficient in Western culture The young scholars.
In 1880, Gu Hongming ended his 14 years of experience in school to return home Penang.
In 1881, Ma Jianzhong met in the chat three, thought of major changes have occurred, immediately resigned from the colonial government office, learning Chinese culture.
At the beginning of 1883, English newspaper ” North China Daily News “Entitled” China school “article, that he proudly walk Chinese culture Irony, writing the way of Western learning. At the end of nineteenth Century and early twentieth Century for several years, he will also ” The Analects of Confucius “,” The Doctrine of the Mean “Translated into English, have been published and published in the overseas. Then the translation ” University “.
In 1885, Gu Hongming went to China, by the viceroy Zhang Zhidong appointed as “foreign copywriter” (i.e. foreign secretary). Zhang Zhidong, the implementation of the new deal, to train a new army, also attaches great importance to higher education. He sent the minister power in the late Qing Dynasty Zhang Zhidong Was in office for twenty years, the main duty is to “interpret”. While he did help Zhang Zhidong Overall westernization, while lapping Ancient Chinese Literature Search, since “Hanbin read easy”.
In 1891, the Russian crown prince in China, with its carved crown gold watch.
In November 29, 1893, Gu Hongming to plan and draft, and then Zhang Zhidong was approved, on October 22nd Guangxu nineteen years to “set up” piece of self-improvement school Memorial emperor, preparation of construction, self independent management by Chinese institutions of Higher Learning — self-improvement school ( Wuhan University The predecessor), was accurate. The school was formally established after self-improvement, Cai Xiyong Was appointed secretary (president), Gu Hongming Ren dialect study, become the school self generation teacher.
In 1898, Japanese Prime Minister Itou Hirofumi Well visit.
In 1901, the Qing government to “travel special” fame gave him the “liberal arts scholars”.
In 1905, Gu Hongming served as chairman of the Bureau of Shanghai Huangpu shunji.
From 1901 to 1905 five, Gu Hongming published the one hundred and seventy-two “China notes”, repeatedly stressed the value of Oriental civilization.
In 1906, Russian writer Tolstoy Exchange of letters.
In 1908, the Ministry of foreign affairs Xuantong throne, Gu Ren Lang.
In 1909, the “English China Oxford movement” (Devin’s version and defense: China name “against the criticism of the idea of Europe”) published in Europe, especially Germany, have a huge impact, some University Department of philosophy as a necessary reference book.
In 1910, he resigned from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Office, in Shanghai Nanyang public supervision.
After the revolution of 1911, Xin Hai, Gu Ciqugongzhi .
In 1913, together with Tagore won the prize for literature Nobel.
In 1915, a professor at Peking University, lecturer of English literature. ” Spring and Autumn Annals “(also known as the” Chinese spirit “) published. His idealism to show the world China culture is the panacea to save the world, at the same time, he Western civilization Criticism is sharp and profound. Soon ” Spring and Autumn Annals “Devin version was published, in” a war “in Germany caused a huge sensation.
In 1917, Cai Yuanpei in the north, put forward “on the principle of freedom of thought, take the people advocate absorb anything and everything”, a prosperous era of China University flower briefly as the broad-leaved epiphyllum. Gu Hongming was invited to teach English literature.
In 1920, British writer Maugham Visit.
In 1921, Japanese writer Akutagawa Ryunosuke Visit.
In 1923, Cai Yuanpei resigned from the University’s presidency, Gu Hongming also followed the resignation. Soon, recommended by the people to a home run when the English newspaper editor.
In 1924, Gu Hongming went to Japan to give lectures for three years, during which time he went to Taiwan to give lectures, hosted by Gu Xianrong, the founder of Taiwan Lukang Koo’s cousin. In April 23rd, India Poetry Tagore Gu Hongming’s visit to China, and Liang Qichao, Cai Yuanpei, Hu Shi, Liang Shuming, Xiong Xiling, Jiang Menglin went to the station to meet Beijing qianmen. The same year, see Pu Yi .
In 1927, Gu Hongming returned to the motherland from japan. Shortly after his wife Shu Gu died. Japanese recommended him for the newly formed “military government” marshal Zhang Zuolin’s advisers. Zhang Zuolin of the Qing wear clothing, leaving pigtail antique is very strange, say without mincing words asked: “what can you do?” Gu Hongming stared at the guard, did not find that the others governor Zhang Zhidong as a guest of the shadow, but turn on one’s heel.
At the end of 1928 4, the Manchurian warlord Zhang Zongchang An Gu Hongming as president of Shandong University, Gu Hongming also intends to charge. But with a cold, please the French doctor, did not improve. The 30 day, died in Beijing, at the age of 72.      

2The main achievement

Personal writings

Gu Hongming’s career is less than one, the meaning and importance of his life story is the communication between Chinese and Western culture and resorting to translation. In order to let the Westerners know Kong Meng Chinese philosophy, moral spirit, diligent in his writing. Gu’s works, and written in fluent English, its purpose is to make Westerners understand, and by understanding and respect China culture.
English monograph
1.PapersfromaViceroy’sYamen:AChinesePleafortheCauseofGoodGovernmentandTrueCivilization. on the cover Zhao Fengchang Handwritten calligraphy Chinese title “king article”. The book in 1901Shanghai It is published, Gu Hongming and The Boxer Movement Since, continued: In Japan “post” and other newspapers of the English series to form a collection of political essays. After the publication of the book, the Europeans to buy circulated, at that time the international influence. “The history of the Qing Dynasty. “The biography said:” Gushi to English “by Shen Dayi,” article Zunwang, know Chinese Confucianism’s powers, will not be bullied, and is.”
2.ETnunc, reges, intelligite! TheMoralCauseoftheRussia-JapaneseWar (“today, the emperor, please ponder! The Russo Japanese War “), its moral reasons from December 10, 1904 onwards in the” Japan Post “on 1906 in Shanghai continuously published, compiled and published. The main discussion The Russo Japanese War The root in the moral aspect, as well as Chinese and Western civilization, and criticized Russia and Japan policy.
3.TheStoryofaChineseOxfordMovement (“China Oxford movement The story “, is to commemorate Gu Hongming) Zhang Zhidong And, for the first time in 1910 published in Shanghai. In the book he will Zhang Zhidong Compared to the UK in nineteenth Century Cardinal NewmanZhang Zhidong (CardinatNewman), the leadership of the maintenance Chinese tsunatsune norm and Newman in a clean campaign England The church attacks liberal movement in Oxford made a comparative study, Zhang Zhidong pointed out a clean campaign and Newman’s Oxford movement is breaking the opposition and attack the same enemy — Modern European high material civilization.
4.TheSpiritoftheChinesePeople (” Chinese spirit “, also known as” Spring and Autumn Annals “), this is Gu Hongming to the Western propaganda China traditional culture Masterpiece. The book was first published on 1915 in Beijing, and soon by the German scholar Oscar A H Schmitz (Oscar.A.H.Schmitz) translated into Devin, a sensation in the west. The book illustrates the power of the spirit of the Chinese nation and China civilization, advocating Chinese culture to save on the west. The book is divided into four parts: preface, introduction, text and appendix.
In addition, Gu Hongming also often in English newspapers published articles, ” North China Daily News “(aka” The North China Daily “NorthChinaDailyNews,” post “), Japan (JapanWeeklyMail),” Beijing daily “(BeijingDailyNews),” Miller’s comments “Far East (Millard’sReviewoftheFarEast),” North China “(NorthChinaStandard) is reported,” The times “(TheTimes) and other English newspapers are his criticism of the west, take a” week hole “position.
After Gu Hongming published, Westerners both surprised and admire, especially the Germans and Japanese, in order to let more people understand the Oriental sages thought and theory, they put Gu Hongming Devin and articles were translated into japanese. In 1920, Leipzig in Germany, published by Professor Nelson’s translation of Gu Hongming papers (“VoxClamantis” aka “cry, whining voice”). German sinologist Wei Lixian (RichardWilhelm) is compiled for “Gu Hongming anthology China against European thought: a collection of critical essays”, the book “Oxford movement” as the main China. Gu Hongming’s speech in Japan by the Japanese Cultural Association Dadong paper assembled into “Gu Hongming lectures” set published in Japan in 1925. In 1941 the Japanese Samoxiongci in Japan published the “Gu Hongming collection” compilation, the main contents are from the “Gu Hongming speech” and “set Chinese spirit” in the translation of selected out.
Translation works
As a translator, Gu Hongming’s contribution mainly includes two aspects: one is the Chinese classics “Analects of Confucius”, “golden mean”, “University”, a English, in book translation in late Qing Dynasty in the most prestigious; on the other hand is the foreign poetry translated into Chinese, mainly William Cobb’s “idiot. A song” and Coleridge’s “the ancient mariner”, become the modern China to domestic translation of Western poetry pioneer.
China The Four Books translation first began in the late Ming and early Qing dynasty. When visiting foreign missionaries and Sinologists to “the book of songs”, “book of changes”, ” The Analects of Confucius “,” me “etc. Chinese ancient culture Classics translated into many languages, has spread to Europe and the United States, Latin, Italian, French and English. To China classics translated into western languages, and is proficient in two languages of translation, can thoroughly ignore the culture of the two countries, not ordinary people can serve as. These missionaries and Sinologists most just a Chinese, so there are many shortcomings of the translated works, and even some product word sentences, product word text, can not reflect the essence of China culture on the whole.
In modern times, the translation works of Kong Meng, the most famous is the Li Yage(JamesLegge). Li Yage Is a famous sinologist, Chinese high attainments. In Wang Tao Under the assistance, he put the ten books translated into English China “thirteen classics”, referred to as the “Chinese classic” (TheChineseClassics), enjoys a high reputation in the west, there were many Westerners as the standard. But due to the huge differences between Chinese and English in terms of language between the two countries, culture, way of thinking, so Li Yage Although the translation of the previous translation is relatively accurate, still have misunderstanding, misinterpretation of die hard translation phenomenon, interpret out of context translation.
In 1884 Gu Hongming published “Chinese science” in an article pointed out: Li Yage “Classic” Chinese translation work is only necessary, although the amount is amazing, but were not satisfactory. Gu Hongming believes that it is these missionaries and Sinologists distorted the original meaning of the Confucian classics, ruined Chinese culture, and lead to Westerners have prejudices Chinese and Chinese civilization. In order to eliminate the prejudice, he decided his translation of Confucian classics. In 1898 Gu Hongming published his first book of translations in Shanghai ” The Analects of Confucius “(TheDiscoursesandSayingsofConfucius:ANewSpecialTranslation, IllustratedwithQuotationsfromGoetheandOtherWriters), launched in 1906 second translations” The Doctrine of the Mean “(TheUniversalOrderorConductofLife), and later he translated the” University “(HigherEducation), but not officially published. He is in ” The Analects of Confucius “Opinion said: we just want to express a wish, hope that the British educated thinking read the translation in the patient, to reflect on their Chinese existing prejudices, and can therefore change their attitude to the correction of errors, the relationship between country and country in Britain and people the people, the.
A characteristic of Gu Hongming’s translation of Confucian classics is the most prominent translation method, which adopts the method of “dynamic equivalence”, so as to play a role in the expression of the same with the original ideas, rather than between the original text and the translation word sentence than the conversion of mechanical comb. In ” The Analects of Confucius“Opinion, he pointed out that his translation is to” let the ordinary English readers can understand the Chinese to the intellectual and moral outlook of the Chinese booklet “, so he tried to” make Confucius and his way of talking, like educated people in the UK and the expression of these same ideas as China junjie.” In ” The Doctrine of the Mean “Opinion, he clarified his translation views:” completely mastering the meaning of the original text, not only translated, but also the reproduction of the original style.” Gu Hongming in the specific translation work, really hard to practice the purpose of translation.
Gu Hongming style reproduction of the original efforts is reflected in the poetry, namely ” The Analects of Confucius “,” The Doctrine of the Mean “And appeared in poetry with poetry fragments of the same form. The English Gushi master, and quite successful.
Another important feature of Gu Hongming translation of Confucian books is quoted goethe,Carlile , Arnold Shakespeare, a famous western writer and thinker words to annotate some passages in the translation of the Confucian classics, is the first time in the history. Gu Hongming in ” The Analects of Confucius “Opinion” explains its purpose: to give readers a thorough understanding of the meaning of the ideas in the book, we have quoted a European some very famous writer, as a comment. By arousing already familiar ideas, these comments may attract readers who understand these writers.” The modern China from the Western cultural exchange is bidirectional, but the “Western learning” forces than always” East to West “Much more powerful, and Westerners in the choice of tonghak is with the colonists superior contempt, therefore, and the diaphragm of the oriental culture is very deep. In this case, Koo’s Confucian annotation method to help readers understand the western culture China is undoubtedly meaningful.
In addition to the European famous reference note, there are still Gushi annotations of the book China characters, Chinese Dynasty Similar to the characteristics of the characters and the time to compare with Western history. Such as the Hui to San John, Lu Yao as compared to San Peter, Abraham Etc.. In the Xia Dynasty such a concept of time, Gu Hongming made such a comparison: the Xia Dynasty to Confucius age people such as the Greek history in modern europeans. Such a comparison may not be appropriate, but it is helpful to those of Chinese culture little is known about the Westerners to better grasp the content of Confucian classics.
Gu Hongming’s translation of ” The Analects of Confucius “,” The Doctrine of the Mean “Other than before the western missionaries and Sinologists Confucian Translations has been a qualitative leap, Confucianism can be said to be a milepost towards history, but due to the limitation of thought and times, the deficiencies of this or that his translation works.
Gu Hongming the biggest drawback that too much free. It is one of the manifestations in effect under the premise to grasp, add a lot of original content not free. For Gu Hongming’s translation of Confucian classics, there had been two opposite evaluation: one is a highly praise, negative criticism. With a view to the front Lin Yutang As the representative of. Lin Yutang In this way “to evaluate” a book from Christian pagan: “he (Gu Hongming) is the merit in the translation of the three Confucian” four books “, not only a faithful translation, but also is a kind of creative translation, the ancient classic light through a deep understanding of the philosophy of science. He played with the Oriental concept of electroplating a western concept in fact. His “Confucius speech”, Goethe, Schiller, decorated with Ruskin, and Juhir’s instructive wit. The Confucian literature translation, effective deep understanding on his original.” Negative attitude to Wang Guowei As the representative of. Wang Guowei I seriously read Ku’s translation ” The Doctrine of the Mean “Gu”, and wrote a Book Shengying ” after the translation of Tang “the article refers to the size of a plurality of Chen ills, that Gu Hongming’s translation is a great attempt failed.
Whether people of Gu Hongming translation of the evaluation, but he explained to Chinese culture that contributed. He translated ” The Analects of Confucius “, popular translation”; The Doctrine of the Mean “Has been in the” Oriental Wisdom Series “income in. Gu Hongming is so famous in the west. He put the traditional culture to Chinese with great enthusiasm and creativityThe western world In the history of Chinese and Western culture, wrote a thick and heavy in colours.

Have a thorough knowledge of both Western and traditional Chinese Medicine

Gu Hongming versed. That year, Gu Hongming in English speech “in the legation area six Hotel Spring cause”, not only to the ticket, but the fare is higher than that of the “four famous” Mei Lanfang of the first. Mei Lanfang at the price of a two yuan angle, and Gu Hongming’s speech will offer two tickets, but also very popular. Signifying his status in the eyes of foreigners.
Gu Hongming is the first in the west, after learning from the west, Gu Hongming’s attire is the first West after, from the West in the. After returning home, even during when the staff was followed by a long robe in Western dress and leather shoes, head, foot skullcap, double beam shoes, dragging behind a yellow pigtail, and after entering the Republic of China, he also dressed no difference. Zhou Zuoren in the “North” in the sense of the old record description of Gu Hongming “was a pair of deep eyes high nose looks a foreigner, head of yellow hair, but into a small plait, wearing Ningbo silk winter big sleeve jacket on the side, a skullcap; don’t say in ten years before and after Beijing that is, in the Qing era, on the road to meet such a small city in China. The priest like figure, you may see God’s eyes open. Especially wonderful is that the car driver, do not know where to find the country specially, or Xuzhou’s remaining braid soldiers are also unknown, but also a drag back braid with man, the class master is just a right, he was sitting in the car outside the gate of a pocket waiting also, do not lose a particular driver in the team.”
Gu Hongming advocated the Confucianism to incapable of further increase the point, but also embodies his be skilled in debate, wit and humor. “He taught at the University’s Latin homework, can not play his orthodoxy, he was looking for the opportunity to vent whenever and wherever possible”. Once, he entertained friends in Europe toon alley home, cramped and shabby courtyard has been poor enough, lighting or kerosene, faint acrid smoke, and the European and American friends, help is not clear “the true meaning of Jinan send Lu”. So, some people said: “as a kerosene lamp lamp and lamp bright.” Gu Hongming: “we know that people in the East, with oriental people, find one’s true self, self illuminating lamp. Unlike the Western Oriental special value surface time.” Gu Hongming’s remark, really put his American friends to scare.

Respected Ancient Chinese Literature Search

Proficient in Western Gu Hongming, in painstaking research Ancient Chinese Literature Search, have a comparison, this creates a hold of life. He thought of the Confucian doctrine of righteousness, can save the law of the jungle appearing in the competition and callous destruction; he believes, is the people to get rid of the traditional culture, it is a remedy to save the world, and that is the essence of Confucian culture. So he not only own more spare no effort to the world, prostrate oneself in worship, shoulder the task of strengthening Chinese, thought and enlightenment. He published “English Chinese science”, is almost a Ancient Chinese Literature Search declaration. Since then his writings “notes”, “Chinese China Oxford movement”, “spring and Autumn Annals” (namely “Chinese spirit”), the translation of the “four books” in the “Analects of Confucius”, “3”, “the University” Chinese classics such as hard, spread to the world of Confucian doctrine advocate, Oriental culture, caused great repercussions in the west. It should be said that this is not before, who is more complete, accurate, system to the extraterritorial conscious transmission Ancient Chinese Literature Search classics.

Spring and Autumn Annals

Gu Hongming proficient in English, German, etc Ten The text, especially good at writing by English, Sun Zhongshan , Lin Yutang Push for the first China.

In 1915, Gu Hongming published in Beijing ” Chinese spirit “(SpiritofChinesePeople) a book, Chinese title” Spring and Autumn Annals “. Soon Yi Chengde, France and Japan, and published in many languages, a sensation in western Germany, and even set off a hot Gu Hongming continued for more than ten years “”. ” Chinese spirit “Is Gu Hongming’s most influential English representative works, the book by the author in 1914 published in the newspaper” comment “, English Chinese to” Chinese spirit “as the core of the series of articles and. At that time the Western powers to the Chinese national culture of bullying and Chinese discrimination, Gu Hongming is about to reveal the theme Chinese spirit Life, the eternal value of traditional culture China analysis. Gu Hongming thinks, should be valued in a civilization, must see it “can produce what kind of person, what kind of man and woman”. He criticized those who “called civilization research authority” China missionaries and Sinologists “do not really understand Chinese and China language”. He originally pointed out: “we should know the real Chinese and China civilization, that person must be deep, broad and simple”, because” Chinese character And the three characteristics of China civilization, it is deep, broad and simple (deep, broadandsimple), in addition to “sensitive” (delicacy)”. Because of this, Gu Hongming said, Chinese left the impression of “gentle” (gentle, refined and cultured), “the kind of unspeakable goodness”.
Behind Chinese gentle image, hiding their “pure utter innocence” and “adult wisdom”. Gu Hongming wrote, “Chinese live a life like kids — a life of the heart”, therefore, “rather than the development of Chinese has been hampered, it is not as good as a never aging nation”, a “have the secret of eternal youth of the nation”. This “like a child with the heart of life” for the nation, the abstract, the stereotype of the science and technology is certainly not interested in. Gu Hongming in order to respond and explain a westerner about Chinese the ingrained cliches: “Chinese lack of accuracy”. He said: “the symbol China brush can perhaps be regarded as a Chinese spirit. By writing the painting brush is very difficult, it is difficult to accurately, but once mastered it, you can create a wonderful handy, elegant calligraphy and painting, and with a hard pen is unable to obtain this effect.” In Gu Hongming’s view, disdain to accurate Chinese, the “utter innocence” and “adult” wisdom of the organic com., reached a “mind and reason perfect harmonious”: This is a long history of the Chinese nation “the secret of eternal youth”. He cited the “most China taste English poet Wordsworth” poem “Tintern Abbey”, showing the Chinese mind and the reason the perfect combination of produce the kind of “serenity, such as grace mood”. It is this state of mind and spiritual realm, given that Chinese “unspeakable gentleness”.
“Real Chinese” or, in the “real China women” or “ideal woman” who has been very full, perfect embodiment. China man “, in the women’s China refined and cultured” into the “sacred, strange gentleness”. Gu Hongming admitted that, in other countries and national ideal women also exist in this gentle, such as the Christian virgin Maria However, compared with the China ideal female Chinese a Buddism godness Guanyin Bodhisattva, be in “cheerful and courteous”. He believes that “the book of songs” in the “Guan Ju” the poem depicts the three essential features of Chinese ideal female, namely “leisurely quiet love, or shy shy and ‘debonair’ expression of the kind of unspeakable elegant and charming, finally is pure or chaste”. About China women, Chinese concubinage natural question is an unavoidable topic. Gu Hongming will be the phenomenon of “rational existence” is attributed to the Chinese women “without me teach”, or “lady or wife Tao”: “it is the kind of selfless China women, making Chinese not only possible in concubinage, but not moral.” This is obviously a quibble, but this kind of sophistry is from another angle to strengthen the China women beautiful and virtuous ideal image.
Why Chinese men and women with the spiritual characteristics? Gu Hongming thinks, this is the China “no religion” long term education results. The so-called “no religion”, which refers to the “essence” is the doctrine of Confucius and Mencius, righteousness and propriety, “especially the ceremony, more China the essence of civilization”. Gu Hongming compared with European religious doctrines China: “European religious people ‘to be a good man’, Chinese religion People will have to ‘do a good manners’;’ love ‘, Christian is Confucius called’ people with love’.” He come very naturally to contact in Europe was a “cruel reality war” fire, pointed out that the moral root of this war is not about justice and power in Chongxin. Therefore, he will have Chinese both give good religious ritual in Europe, to stop the war, “the European civilization saved from destruction”, and provide a “key to the post-war reconstruction of civilization”. To save western civilization with Chinese traditional Confucian culture, which is ” Chinese spirit “A Book marking” Spring and Autumn Annals “Lie.
Proof of history, Gu Hongming” Spring and Autumn Annals “Did not produce the” actual effect of fear, his treacherous ministers and traitors “Chinese” no religion “universal function is obviously too confident. However, in the “war” in Europe, especially Germany, because people from the war suffering, for their own civilization value widespread disappointment and despair, and produced a hazy envy of the peace of the East, Gu Hongming and his book became the messenger “hope in their eyes”. Not only has Gu Hongming of university organization “will”, established the “Gu Hongming club”, his name is widely spread in the mouth of ordinary people. Push in this “Gu Hongming”, the China and China Europeans understand the culture deepened, the image China woman followed the religion of good citizenship, social China and the China of everything in good order and well arranged, refined and cultured man in a Gu Hongming’s also widely known by people, and even become a Utopia in the war of the European people dream of. Whether true or not, Gu Hongming elucidation” Chinese spirit “With him to save West” Spring and Autumn AnnalsOf course, in the “Chinese spread national culture, undoubtedly wrote a unique and eye-catching.



At the beginning of twentieth Century, Gu Hongming on behalf of Mr. The Beiyang Government Washington Conference. A cocktail party, a shallow U.S.A The lady sitting next to Gu Hongming. Looked at this strange old man described China, she can’t find a topic. In the play, finally unbearable, learn ChinatownThe broken English cavity, Yiziyizi said: “likesoup?” (like the soup?) Gu Hongming nodded and smiled politely. MS Chinaman think the most shallow even do not understand English, he will no longer respond. After three drinks, Gu Hongming rose to his speech, speak fluent English and elegant, greatly for the entire block of. Gu Hongming sat down, also the woman’s tone, whispered that has flushed the lady: “likespeech?” (like my speech?)

Gu Hongming once said to the students: “now Chinese only two people, one is Mr. Cai Yuanpei, one is me. Why do you say that? He refused an official after Mr. Cai point to the imperial revolution, still in the revolution. And I do. Since with Zhang Wenxiang (Zhang Zhidong) to do after the former officer, still royalist.”
One year, Yuan Shikai’s men his birthday, Gu Hongming sent a poetic couplet, couplet is: “do no longer Qing Yu Dutch cap;” the second line is: “Mutilator and Aoshuang sticks.” Later, Gu Hongming asked Hu Shi to be mysterious, what are the implications of this poetic couplet. Hu Shixiao replied: “‘Mutilator and Aoshuang sticks’, of course refers to Zhang Dashuai and old braid. But I don’t know ‘with the rain cover’ is what mean? ” Gu Hongming said: “the ‘engine rain cover’ is the hat of the Qing dynasty.” So the two of them laugh loud and clap one’s hands.
Gu Hongming is going to marry that man little wife, think this is the foundation of social stability. He said that the man is a teapot, a woman is a teacup, teapot must match several cups, not a teacup with several teapot.
Gu Hongming attaches great importance to the maintenance of the traditional value of Confucianism, in 1893 he assist the Viceroy Zhang Zhidong Preparatory mint, foreign experts day Mint jointly invite Gu Hongming to dinner, we have a lot of respect for the innocent, he pushed the sitting chief. On the banquet, a foreigner asked Gu Hongming: “can you tell us about your Confucius, what are the benefits?” Immediately, Gu Hongming said: “everyone just pushed me sitting in chief, this is Confucius for teaching. If today we all like your western advocate competition, everyone rushed to grab a seat to survival of the fittest, chief, I see the meal everyone not to eat, this is the benefits of confucianism!”
In 1896 the Viceroy Zhang Zhidong Sixty year old birthday, Jiaxing wit Shen Cengzhi (the origin, One’s mind) to come to birthday, Gu Hongming talk with eloquence Chinese and western academic system, Shen Cengzhi did not answer a word, Gu Hongming felt very strange, and asked why he was not a word? Shen Cengzhi said: “I understand what you say; you want to understand my words, but also read the book twenty years Chinese!” Two years later, Gu Hongming heard that Shen Cengzhi came to visit Zhang Zhidong, Zhang Zhidong’s books to the living room under the call immediately, Shen sik asked Gu Hongming: “what books?” Gu Hongming said: “you can ask Shen Gong, back where a book, I can not back? You know, I don’t know which book? ” Shen Cengzhi laughed and said: “in the future, Chinese cultural burden falls on your shoulders!”
After Gu Hongming returned home, in the The Viceroy The Department and the Viceroy Department of Shogun twenty years as a staff, very popular Zhang Zhidong Guy. But Gu Hongming would take Zhang Zhidong and Duanfang Both before and after the two term governor Huguang leg, he said: “Zhang Wen Xiang Learning more than wise, so the disease in pride; the dragon boat bridge (duanfang) bright and knowledge shortage, so the disease in floating. Wenxiang proud, so the door staff more than a hypocrite; Wu Qiao float, so the door staff really.”
At the end of the Qing Dynasty, Gu Hongming entered the career, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Office, transportation is also good. By Yuanwai Lang L doctor, then rose Zuo Cheng, equivalent to Deputy Minister of foreign affairs. But good times don’t last long, before long, Xin Hai revolution The outbreak, Xuantong emperor abdicated, Gu Hongming, when not become. The president of the Peking University Cai Yuanpei Please Mr. He to the Peking University teaching British literature and Latin courses. Gu Hongming Cai Yuanpei Is respected, in his eyes, the whole China only two good: one is Cai Yuanpei, another is his own. So, when the “five four Yundong”, Cai Yuanpei Gu Hongming’s resignation principal, actively retain faction, but his reason is: “the headmaster of our school must not retain the emperor, so.”

Sino-Japanese Jiawu War After, Itou Hirofumi To China roaming in Wuchang, and Zhang Zhidong A contact. The English version of Gu Hongming as chief of staff to Itou Ichi the newly published “Analects of Confucius”. Ito knew Gu Hongming was a pioneer in Chinese conservatives, seized the opportunity to tease him: “I heard you in western academic, is it not clear Confucius teaching work in more than two thousand years ago, but not in twentieth Century to today?” Gu Hongming adopted piecemeal, replied: “Confucius method to teach people, like mathematicians in thousands of years ago, add, subtract, multiply and divide, the method is three three to nine now, in twentieth Century, the law is still three three to nine, and not three three eight.” Ito was speechless.

Gu Hongming and Hu Shi It is the largest of the western Gu Hongming contempt, a bitter enemy, but Hu Shi praised the western. They are in The New Culture Movement Many times in battle. In the play there are two sides to the Confucian argument.
Hu Shi 1917 was hired as a professor at Peking University, as the youngest professor at Peking University, made a speech, with English read a sentence Homer The following poem, also came a English, mean Mr. Hu Shi’s English is British pronunciation and mocking Hu Shi et al, is Gu Hongming, this is the first time the conflict between the two men. Then all kinds of conflicts.
Gu Hongming’s claims of imperial power, he can not meet tablets will kowtow. The Empress Dowager Ci Xi birthday, he publicly “new poetry” escape one’s lips “the emperor is thousands of years, people spend money. A long life, the people suffer for it “. The death of Yuan Shikai, three days of national mourning, Gu Hongming has specially invited a troupe, in home court, busy three days.
Speaking of Gu Hongming, Chinese people left the deepest impression, probably the drag on the back of his head long braids. This is a scene in Beijing, called the unearthed cultural relics. Gu Hongming braid, and not just for the ancient and stay. Early in the UK, he has cut a pair of braids, in Western dress and leather shoes, fashion. Later, everyone is talking about the anti Qing revolution, but he put the Manchu people hard planted braids to stay up. The reason is likely to be “high” innovation thought. Of course, befitting his reactionary. The students laughed at him, he was head of the answer back sarcastically: “my braids are tangible, your heart is invisible braids.”

4Character evaluation ” Mad Gu Hongming Confucianism Gu Hongming: “from this unique perspective, compare the Chinese and American, British, German, French, and highlights the characteristics of the Chinese: American broad, simple, but not deep; the British people deep, simple, but not broad; German broad and profound, but not simple the French did not; the Germans natural deep, as USA heart chest broad and British people have simple, the lack of the three national comprehensive Chinese sensitive; only to have the four best spirit. Because of this, Gu Hongming said, Chinese left the impression of “gentle”, “sort of unspeakable goodness”.

Zhang Zhonghang I want to say: if this monster, but also some contribution, his greatest contribution is that, when the world rushes to the right and benefit, he would stand beside shouted: dangerous! Dangerous!
“The Analects” translation publication Preface: Mr. Koo no small feat is the translation of the three Confucian books, he is not only a faithful translation of it, but a kind of creative translation, beyond the gap in Western ideas and ways of thinking.
Peking University professor English Wen Yuanning “A thought:” the laity in his lifetime, Gu Hongming has become a legend; after his death, I’m afraid there may be as mythical characters. In fact, the man, with many of the present every day you meet the people is not very different, he is a born rebel.
Wu Mi (“Ta Kung Pao”) published paper said: in addition to the one or two leaders of the main political theory should be left outside, today the Chinese people, whose name is familiar with Europe and the United States, Europe and the United States as the people often have no readers, such as Gu Hongming’s cover. From the view of many Westerners, Gu Shishi represents Chinese culture, and China in the world is only a powerful propagandist.
Luo Jialun (“memories of Mr. Gu Hongming”): in the late Qing Dynasty in a foreign language name at home and abroad, and to see that is grotesque, Mr. Gu Hongming.
Lin Yutang (“Gu Hongming ‘translation translation English’ Analects”): John also described the people of the rise above the common herd, clank.
Liang Shiqiu (“Mr. Gu Hongming”: an anecdote) teapot husband, to his wife’s cup, so in favor of polygamy, Cheng strange.
The history of the Qing Dynasty. Comment: “Tang Sheng to English grass” Shen Dayi, “article Zunwang, know the Confucianism’s powers, will not be bullied, and is.

5Historical records

The history of the Qing Dynasty. – volume four hundred and eighty-six – two hundred and seventy-three biographies ”

6Family members

Father: Gu Ziyun
Wife: Shu Gu
Wife: Zhen Zi
Son: Gu Shouyong
Daughter: Zhendong Koo, Gu Nawa


Cypress alley No. 26
Cypress is alley Dongcheng District Donghua area is the door, Dongsi South Street Third lane road from south to North number, from east to West communication Dongsi South Street and Wangfujing street, 530 meters long. The Ming Dynasty, said” Chunshu alley It is said that, therefore, the original “, a big toon named 1965; rectification names will on the north side of the horse’s tail into the alley, with the Xicheng District The Toon name and renamed the “cypress alley alley”,” The Cultural Revolution “Was renamed” Ruijin road fifteen “, after” cypress alley”.
Cypress alley No. 26, the old house is Chunshu alley No. 30. According to the housing archives, the hospital in the south western part of the recessed small alley lined, covers an area of 130 square meters; the west gate, is a wall with “small building”; the three hospital of the north room is a ridge tile, a south room is grey top platform, a total construction area of 60 square meters. In twentieth Century 80, cypress alley No. 26 and adjacent courtyards were requisitioned together, into the Wangfujing hotel.
Then, this humble courtyard has a nickname, called “Jinan send Lu”, as the name suggests, “Jinan send Lu” is a master of natural seclusion in the left but to highlight the moral responsibility of the gentleman. The gentleman is the famous Gu Hongming, the people of the world as “”.
The East alley No. 18 No.
Dong Chun Shu alley 18 homes is the former residence of Gu Hongming. Hu Tongzhong’s remaining buildings are mostly later clamshell, is basically a simple cottage. Dong Chun Shu Hu Tong, the house is 50 years old, Gu Hongming came to Beijing after the place of residence, the gift is said to others. Peking University professor Gu Hongming during his tenure in his later years, and democratic atmosphere style made him draw further apart in history left a unique.


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